Groundbreaking judgments like “Eesti Pagar”, applications of the private investor principle in air transport or questions of interpretation of the GBER besides many more, have moved and shaped this year’s judgments on State aid. Also Brexit and its meaning for State aid control in the UK has still been on everyone’s mind. See which articles by Prof. Phedon Nicolaides were the most popular ones in 2019.

With 2019 drawing to a close, it is time to take a moment and celebrate the most popular posts of Prof. Phedon Nicolaides‘ blog State Aid Uncovered. Keeping in mind that older posts have more time to be read, we list the top 5 posts of the year. The whole compilation of altogether 53 State Aid Uncovered posts will be available again as a print edition in February 2020 – stay tuned.

Read now the posts which attracted the most attention:

  1. There Is No Threshold below which Economic Activities Can Be Considered to be Non-economic, 21 May 2019
  2. Services of General Economic Interest: Proper Definition and Avoidance of Overcompensation, 29 January 2019
  3. National Authorities Must Recover Aid they Grant Mistakenly, 26 March 2019
  4. The Boundary between State and Private Resources, 9 April 2019
  1. How Much May a Non-Economic Entity Charge without Becoming an Undertaking? 5 March 2019

We thank all our faithful readers for their interest in the blog and are looking forward to another exciting year 2020. We invite you to shar your thoughts on State aid developments in 2020 – get in touch.

The StateAidHub Team wishes you a Happy New Year 2020!


by Caroline Wehlander, Friday, 7 February 2020, 11:49:16

Thank you so much for this comment. I found the opinion confusing in the sense that it seems to suggest that even the for-profit activity of privately-owned companies would be non-economic...

by Phedon Nicolaides, Thursday, 30 January 2020, 13:12:58

I have read the opinion but I do not normally comment on opinions. As with all AG opinions, it provides an educational review of the case law. But I am not sure it offers a test that can be applied in other situations to determine whether what we may call “residual” competition can turn a non-economic activity into economic. It should not be surprising that some residual competition existed in that health insurance system. This is because I have never observed a non-economic activity which is totally devoid of some form competition [above minimum required standards] among those who carry it out. [e.g. teacher or nurse of the year awards, research or book prizes, etc] So there is always some competition, some emulation, some performance comparison. But how much is too much?

by Caroline Wehlander, Friday, 24 January 2020, 18:00:09

I would really look forward reading professor Nicolaides' view on the opinion of the General Advocate in the Dovera case.

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Phedon Nicolaides

Professor at the College of Europe, Bruges, and at the University of Maastricht, and Academic Director at lexxion training

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